Pieter Willem Botha (12 January 1916 – 31 October 2006), also known as P.W. or Die Groot Krokodil which means "The Big Crocodile" was the leader of South Africa during the year of Apartheid. He was an outspoken opponent of black majority rule and international communism. However, his administration did make concessions towards political reform, whereas internal unrest saw widespread human rights abuses at the hands of the government. He also refused to free Nelson Mandela who was imprisoned under his regime. After resiging in 1989 after suffering a stroke he remained in obscurity until his death in 2006 at the age of 90 years old.